Power Air Quality  Insights  
No. 143   February 6, 2014





The following insights can be sent to you every week. This alert contains the details on the upcoming hot topic hour, breaking news, and the headlines for the Utility E Alert for the previous week. This is one of a number of free services. You can sign up for any of these newsletters and of course request to be removed from the mailing list at any time. See registration following the newsletter.


·        $30 Billion Per Year to Be Spent For Carbon Capture and Sequestration

·        Market for Electrostatic Precipitators Will Exceed $9.7 Billion In 2015

·        $2 Billion Market for Thermal Air Pollution Control Systems In 2015

·        Renewable Energy Briefs     

·        Headlines for the January 31,  2014 - Utility E-Alert

·        “Impact of Ambient Air Quality Rules on Fossil-fueled Boilers and Gas Turbines” is the Hot Topic Hour on February 13, 2014

·        McIlvaine Hot Topic Hour Registration



$30 Billion Per Year to Be Spent For Carbon Capture and Sequestration

The direct expenditure to capture and sequester CO2 for the purpose of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants will be less than $30 billion/yr over the next five years.  However, the expenditures for efficiency improvement from existing coal-fired boilers will result in a total market in excess of $30 billion/yr. This is the conclusion reached in the continually updated Utility CO2 Mitigation Markets published by the McIlvaine Company.  (www.mcilvainecompany.com)

The cost of CO2 capture, treatment, transport and sequestration more than doubles the cost of coal-fired electricity generation.  The parasitic power is such that even if 90 percent of the CO2 is captured, the net reduction of CO2 per MWh is only 70 percent.


  Generation Type

Relative CO2

Most Cost Effective

Conventional coal



Supercritical coal



Combined cycle

50 + 10 = 60


Carbon capture and sequestration - coal



Carbon capture and sequestration  with biomass and coal

Minus 20 to plus 30


Solar, wind nuclear



The most cost effective way to reduce greenhouse gases is to convert all coal-fired power plants to supercritical operation.  The investment cost is more than offset by reductions in coal purchases.  Combined cycle power plants will be the second most attractive option in some parts of the world where gas is plentiful.  However, methane emissions are a variable.  Over one hundred years, methane is only twenty-nine times more potent than CO2, but over the first twenty years, it is one hundred times more potent. The cumulative impact is a function of losses in extraction and transport. Carbon capture and sequestration with beneficial use for enhanced oil recovery is very cost effective. The problem is that most coal-fired CO2 generation is not close to where enhanced oil recovery is needed.

Solar, wind and nuclear are subject to cost variables.  Sites with strong winds or lots of sunshine and sites near the users are more cost effective than others.  Cost overruns with nuclear power plants under construction are adding some uncertainty to the nuclear cost.

Presently, sequestration without beneficial use is the most costly option.  It can also be the most effective.  If substantial amounts of renewable biomass are burned along with the coal and then the exhaust is sequestered, the net effect can be a reduction in greenhouses gases for every unit of electricity generated.

For more information on Utility CO2 Mitigation Markets: click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/markets/2-uncategorised/87-n058


Market for Electrostatic Precipitators Will Exceed $9.7 Billion In 2015

Sales of electrostatic precipitator systems will be just under $10 billion next year.  Most of the sales will be in Asia.  This is the conclusion reached by the McIlvaine Company in Electrostatic Precipitator World Market.  (www.mcilvainecompany.com)

($ Millions)













The continued rapid expansion of coal-fired power in Asia will raise the purchases on this continent to over $7.7 billion next year. Asia will also be purchasing substantial numbers of precipitators for mining, cement and pulp mill applications.

A substantial potential exists in the U.S. for wet precipitators. One reason is that U.S. EPA has defined total particulate to include discrete particles plus condensed droplets. Dry collectors operating at 350oF will not capture condensibles since they are still in the vapor stage. If the gas is cooled and the droplets formed, a wet precipitator is then a very efficient collection device.

Another potential is the use of wet precipitators in conjunction with wet scrubbers to compete with dry scrubbers combined with fabric filters.  Many old coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are rejecting the widely used wet limestone forced oxidation scrubbing system.  This system makes wallboard quality gypsum using a low cost reagent.  Life cycle costs over twenty-five years are attractive.  However, the high capital cost makes the option expensive if the remaining plant life is only ten years.

One lower cost option is dry scrubbing followed by fabric filtration.  Lime is the reagent. So the operating costs are higher than with limestone. Another option is to replace the existing precipitator with a scrubber followed by a wet precipitator.   The scrubber will operate in the natural oxidation mode. Lime is the reagent.  The soupy sludge is chemically fixed resulting in a superior landfill product.  One attractive feature of this option is the removal of the toxic metals from the environment.

For more information on Electrostatic Precipitator World Market, click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/markets/2-uncategorised/111-n018



$2 Billion Market for Thermal Air Pollution Control Systems In 2015

World sales of regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTO), catalytic oxidizers, regenerative catalytic oxidizers (RCO) and other thermal systems will exceed $2 billion in 2015.   This is the conclusion reached by the McIlvaine Company in Thermal Catalytic World Air Pollution Markets.  (www.mcilvainecompany.com)

($ Millions)





 Catalytic Oxidizer








Volatile organic compounds and other combustive gaseous pollutants are found in a wide range of industries.  These have been categorized by their U.S. NAICS Code.


·         211111 - Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction 原油和天然气开采

·         212000 - Mining & Quarrying

·         221112 - Fossil Fuel 化石燃料

·         221119 - Other Electric Power Generation 其它形式发电

·         311320 - Chocolate and Confectionery Manufacturing

·         311811 - Retail Bakeries

·         311920 - Coffee and Tea Manufacturing

·         311999 - All Other Miscellaneous Food Manufacturing

·         313320 - Fabric Coating Mills

·         323112 - Commercial Flexographic Printing

·         324110 - Petroleum Refineries 石油精

·         325110 - Petrochemical Manufacturing 石化产品生产

·         325120 - Industrial Gas Manufacturing

·         325193 - Ethyl Alcohol Manufacturing

·         325199 - All Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing

·         325412 - Pharmaceutical Preparation Manufacturing

·         325998 - All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation

·         326121 - Unsupported Plastics Profile Shape Manufacturing

·         326140 - Polystyrene Foam Product Manufacturing

·         327215 - Glass Product Manufacturing Made of Purchased Glass

·         331111 - Iron and Steel Mills

·         332431 - Metal Can Manufacturing

·         333618 - Other Engine Equipment Manufacturing

·         334412 - Bare Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

·         334413 - Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing

·         335312 - Motor and Generator Manufacturing

·         335991 - Carbon and Graphite Product Manufacturing

·         336111 - Automobile Manufacturing 车制造

·         336112 - Light Truck and Utility Vehicle Manufacturing

·         336120 - Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing

·         336399 - All Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing

·         336992 - Military Armored Vehicle, Tank, and Tank Component

·         339993 - Fastener, Button, Needle, and Pin Manufacturing

·         561910 - Packaging and Labeling Services

·         562213 - Solid Waste Combustors and Incinerators

·         562910 - Remediation Services

·         713930 - Marinas

·         811121 - Automotive Body, Paint, and Interior Repair and Maintenance  

Each of these industries utilizes thermal treatment for control of air pollutants.  Included in the mining sector is thermal treatment of ventilation air from coal mines.  The solid waste sector includes sewage sludge where regenerative thermal oxidizers are now used. 

For more information on Thermal Catalytic World Air Pollution Markets, click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/markets/2-uncategorised/105-n007


Renewable Energy Briefs


Enel Green Power Begins Work on New Wind Farm in Mexico

Enel Green Power has begun construction on the new Dominica I wind farm in Mexico.

The plant, located in the municipality of Charcas and owned by Dominica Energía Limpia S. de R.L., a subsidiary of Enel Green Power Mexico S. de R.L. de C.V. (formerly known as Impulsora Nacional de Electricidad S. de R.L. de C.V.) is the first wind farm located in the state of San Luis Potosí and will be composed of 50 turbines (2 MW each) for a total installed capacity of 100 MW.

Once up and running, the Dominica I plant, which will be completed and enter operation in the second half of 2014, will be able to generate up to 260 GWh per year.

The construction of the wind farm, in line with the growth targets set out in Enel Green Power’s 2013-2017 business plan, requires a total investment of approximately $196 million, financed through the Enel Green Power Group’s own sources.

The project is supported by two long-term agreements to supply energy, or PPAs, for a total value of around $485 million.

Enel Green Power currently has an installed capacity of about 197 MW in Mexico, 144 MW of which from wind power and 53 MW from hydroelectric sources.

Nordex has Contracts for 37.6 MW of Wind Power in Turkey

In the fourth quarter of 2013, the Nordex Group was awarded three new contracts for a combined capacity of 37.6 MW in Turkey. Included in these are the first six N117/3000 generation Delta turbines for this growth market. The second contract also marks a new development as it is the first time that a customer from Turkey has ordered four N117/2400 light wind turbines.

In summer 2014, Nordex will be supplying six of its N117/3000 turbines for the 18-MW Cesme RES project, which is located on a peninsular close to Izmir. Nordex only launched the N117/3000 in spring 2013. This turbine is specifically designed for medium-strong wind conditions and will achieve an above-average capacity factor of over 38 percent at Cesme RES. The customer and future owner of the wind farm is ABK Cesme Enerji Üretim A.S., which is already active in renewable energies.

Named Aliaga RES, the second project is also located in the Izmir region and comprises four N117/2400 turbines. However, with average speeds of 7.0 m/s, this location has IEC III wind conditions. Even so, this wind farm will also reach a capacity factor of around 36 percent thanks to its technical configuration. The investor here is Akca Holding, with activities in textile, energy, food and automotive sectors, committed to sustainable business operations. Construction is scheduled for summer 2014.

In addition, returning customer Karesi Enerji has placed an order with Nordex for four N100/2500 turbines to extend the 45-MW Akres wind farm. Installed by Nordex in 2011, the farm currently has 18 N90/2500 turbines.

First Solar Breaks Ground on 102 MW Nyngan Solar Project

First Solar has begun construction of Australia's largest utility-scale solar project, a 250 hectare solar plant in Nyngan, New South Wales (NSW). Less than six months after AGL Energy Limited achieved financial close for project, First Solar broke ground on the installation of approximately 1,350,000 advanced thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules.

In addition to construction, First Solar is also providing engineering and procurement services for the project and will provide maintenance services for a period of five years post commissioning. Expected to be completed in mid-2015, the project will produce 102 MWAC — enough electricity to power more than 33,000 average NSW homes.

EAWC Technologies on the Verge of Signing Waste to Energy Contracts Valued at $200 Million

Eurosport Active World Corporation (EAWC) Technologies's Research Center is on the verge of concluding $200 million-worth of contracts to supply clean power plants that run on liquid and solid waste.

As recently published in Bloomberg's website EAWC's mandated Swiss Water Tech Research & Development Centre (SWATE) based in Neuchatel (Switzerland), has received Letters of Intent (LoIs) from the Punjabi State Government as well as from several textile and waste-management companies for the provision of innovative and efficient Waste to Energy (WtE) systems. Those LoIs are now on the verge of being concluded as contracts.

The Cove Fort Geothermal Power Plant Starts Operations in Utah

Enel Green Power completed and connected to the grid the Cove Fort geothermal power plant, its first plant in the State of Utah (USA).

Cove Fort is a medium-enthalpy geothermal plant, which uses innovative binary cycle technology. The facility is owned by Enel Cove Fort, LLC, a subsidiary of EGPNA Development Holdings, LLC.

The installed capacity of the Cove Fort geothermal plant amounts to 25 MW. The operating facility will be able to generate up to 160 GWh of power per year, therefore avoiding the emission of around 115,000 tons of CO2 into the atmosphere each year.

Construction of the plant, in line with the growth targets set by Enel Green Power’s 2013-2017 Business Plan, required a total investment of approximately $126 million, financed through the Enel Green Power Group’s own sources.

For more information on Renewable Energy Projects and Update please visit




Headlines for the January 31, 2014 – Utility E-Alert      


#1160 – January 31, 2014

Table of Contents 


§  Brayton Point will shut down anyway in 2017

§  Big River Electric will idle DB Wilson and Coleman after Loss of Largest Customer

§  Oklahoma still fighting EPA’s Regional Haze Plan for State

§  EPA given December Deadline for issuing Coal Combustion Residuals Rule

§  Southern Co to absorb Start-up Costs for Kemper County IGCC Power Plant

§  Tucson Electric Power to convert Sundt to Gas-firing

§  ME2C to supply Mercury Removal Technology to Fleet of Nine Units

§  Precipitator upgrade for Dallman 33
















For more information on the Utility Tracking System, click on:



Impact of Ambient Air Quality Rules on Fossil-fueled Boilers and Gas Turbines” is the Hot Topic Hour on Thursday, February 13, 2014

The utility industry is preparing to deal with the Utility MATS and the Cross State Air Pollution (transport) Rule (CSAPR) currently being reviewed by the Supreme Court and industrial boiler operators are preparing to deal with the Boiler MACT, but the real driver for their pollution control strategy may well be the NAAQS.  The states are now in the process of finalizing and beginning implementation of their SIPs required to meet the NAAQS standards.  The NAAQS regulations establish standards for CO, lead, NO2, ozone, particulate matter and SO2 all of which (except perhaps CO and lead) can have a significant impact on current or planned facilities combusting fossil fuels.

But it may well be the NAAQS PM2.5 standard that will ultimately trump all other rules in terms of efficiency requirements for scrubbers, SCRs and particulate control equipment. One ton of SO2 reacts to form 13 billion micrograms of sulfates. So just one ton of SO2 emissions will cause nearly one billion cubic feet of ambient air to exceed the ambient limit.  When the states review the inventory of SO2 emissions they will quickly determine that requiring an increase in SO2 efficiency at power plants to 99 percent will be the most cost effective and certainly most politically acceptable approach.

In the Western States, it is nitrates not sulfates that are the biggest contributor to PM2.5 in the air. The same analogy holds for SCR efficiency. Although fossil-fueled power plants are not the only sources of NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, they are a major source and are seen as perhaps the easiest source to control. They will, therefore, most certainly face state regulations requiring greater reductions of PM2.5 particulates as well as the ozone precursors NOx and SO2. Although turbines operating on gas are considered “clean”, they will not escape the impact of the rules entirely. In some areas, the limit on particulate emissions in the turbine exhaust is even lower than the particulate load in the intake air. CO and NOx will also be tightly controlled, and when NAAQS limits cannot be met by just reducing power plant emissions, industrial boilers will be next highest on the hit list.

The following speakers will discuss the problems that will be faced by operators of fossil-fueled power plants and industrial boilers as a result of the NAAQS, CASPR and Haze rules. The current status of these rules, suggest possible strategies and courses of action for operators of fossil-fueled boilers and turbines to consider, short of plant closure, to deal with these regulations and the technical solutions for maintaining compliance for existing units as well as the control technologies and equipment that can be utilized to achieve compliance.

Brian Stormwind, Manager, Air Quality Engineering & Studies at AECOM, will present “Dealing with Implementation of the 1-hour SO2 NAAQS: Challenges and Options.”  The stringency and nature of the 1-hour SO2 NAAQS is expected to significantly impact industrial clients for attainment designations that are overdue for most areas.  EPA's strategy seems to focus on the largest SO2 sources (at least one thousand tons/year), while environmental groups have already submitted modeling with purported NAAQS violations due to selected sources to the EPA and state agencies for consideration in the current designation process.  The Sierra Club has also sued EPA over the delays in the designations and may force EPA to speed up this process in a settlement agreement. A soon-to-be-released “Data Requirements Rule” will be very important in this regard.   This presentation addresses how industrial sources that need to act in light of EPA’s forthcoming guidance and the Data Requirements Rule should assess their options and embark upon the most advantageous course, involving either modeling or monitoring strategies.

Richard Hamel, Senior Project Manager, Air Quality and Climate Change (AQCC) Practice at Environmental Resources Management (ERM), will present “Dark Skies Ahead: The Challenges of Modeling the New NAAQS for Fossil-Fuel Power Plants.”  The new 1-hour SO2 and NO2 probabilistic NAAQS, as well as the newly tightened annual PM2.5 standard and already stringent 24-hour PM2.5 standard, have brought to the table a whole new set of challenges in showing compliance compared to the older, deterministic NAAQS.  This presentation will describe each standard, then discuss the particular challenges associated with each in the context of performing compliance demonstrations for the permitting of fossil-fuel power plants while following the required EPA air-dispersion modeling guidance.

Gale F. Hoffnagle, CCM, QEP, Senior Vice President and Technical Director, Air Quality Consulting Practice Leader at TRC Environmental Corporation, will discuss problems related to obtaining permits under the new NAAQS.  The changes to the NAAQS and the way they are being implemented result in very expensive permit applications. The fact that almost every permit is being challenged is leading to substantially longer permitting times and greater uncertainty. The problems and answers to them will be presented.

Mack McGuffey, Partner at Troutman Sanders LLP, will discuss the impact and status of the NAAQS. EPA is required to update its national ambient air quality standards every five years, but never in the history of the Clean Air Act has the Agency issued so many "NAAQS" revisions so quickly.  A newly strengthened standard can seem like changing the rules of the game in the middle of a play to a facility seeking to construct a new boiler or turbine, or modify its existing equipment, even before the newly revised standard has been fully implemented. Many of the standards are also subject to litigation, which can further complicate the picture.  Due to the complex procedure involved in implementing NAAQS revisions, major emitting facility owners and operators should keep a close watch on the progress of EPA's recent and promised revisions, particularly those for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone and sulfur dioxide (SO2), to avoid unwelcome surprises in the form of unexpected permitting and emission control requirements.

To register for the February 13, 2014 “Hot Topic Hour” on “Impact of Ambient Air Quality Rules on Fossil-fueled Boilers and Gas Turbines” at 10 a.m. (CST) click on:




McIlvaine Hot Topic Hour Registration

On Thursday at 10 a.m. Central time, McIlvaine hosts a 90 minute web meeting on important energy and pollution control subjects. Power webinars are free for subscribers to either Power Plant Air Quality Decisions or Utility Tracking System. The cost is $300.00 for non-subscribers.

See below for information on upcoming Hot Topic Hours. We welcome your input relative to suggested additions.




February 6, 2014

Review Of EUEC


February 13, 2014

Impact Of Ambient Air Quality Rules On Fossil-Fueled Boilers And Gas Turbines      

 More information

February 27, 2014


NOx Catalyst Performance On Mercury And SO3 


 More information

March 13, 2014

Industrial Boiler Fuel Options: Coal, Biomass Or Gas?

 More information

March 27

Mercury Control And Removal

 More information

April 10

NOx And Ammonia Slip Measurement



To register for the “Hot Topic Hour”, click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/component/content/article?id=675


You can register for our free McIlvaine Newsletters at: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php?option=com_rsform&formId=5


Bob McIlvaine
847 784 0012 ext 112




191 Waukegan Road Suite 208 | Northfield | IL 60093

Ph: 847-784-0012 | Fax; 847-784-0061