Mcilvaine Insights


No. 121   October 7, 2019


Weekly selected highlights in flow control, treatment and combustion from the many McIlvaine publications.


·       India APC Opportunity

·       Effect of Interference on the Combust, Flow, and Treat Markets

·       Sucking CO2 Out of the Air Means There is No Tipping Point

·       Biomass Ready Coal Fired Plants and Massive Tree Planting will be the Compromise Climate Change Solution

·       Utility Tracking System has Details on All Coal Fired Operators Around the World

·       The Future of Biopharmaceuticals will Depend on Perceived Value vs Cost



India APC Opportunity


The next FGD newsletter will include the analysis of participant companies in SOx-NOx  India. It is partially displayed below.  Also displayed are the headlines to the September FGD newsletter.  This news letter is part of  44I Coal Fired Power Plant Decisions.

This service also includes the  Fabric Filter Newsletter, Electrostatic Precipitator Newsletter, and IIoT and Remote O&M newsletter. 


It  includes an intelligence system with webinars, case histories and papers.  There is no cost to this service for power plant owners.  The cost for others is $1600/yr for one subscriber and $120/yr for additional subscribers from the same company.


We are in discussions with Mission Energy relative to future webinars and will be focused on ways to assist India in making its air. water and solid waste decisions. 


FGD and DeNOx

September 2019
No. 497


  • Wet Lime Systems Have a Number of Benefits Compared to Limestone Systems
  • India Needs Additional High-Quality Hydrated Lime Production
  • Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubber Could Be the Best Choice for Many Indian Power Plants
  • Enhanced Hydrated Lime (EHLS) Has a Number of Advantages
  • Improving the FGD Absorber and ESP Performance at Iskenderun Power Plant
  • Valves for Spray Tower Type FGD System
  • High Priority on Valve Specifications for Indian Limestone FGD Systems 
  • The Shower Versus the Bubble Bath Principle for FGD
  • Indian Power Lobby Presses for Further Delay in Pollution Standards
  • Determining True Cost for Dry Scrubbing through Coal Fired Power Plant Decisions
  • Upgrading Limestone Scrubber System
  • Summary of Air Emissions from the First Year Operation of Jea’s Northside Generating Station
  • Upgrade FGD Systems with An Absorber Tray Says B&W





  • Carmeuse Exporting Lime to India from Oman
  • Chiyoda and Larsen & Toubro are Offering the Chiyoda FGD Systems to Indian Power Plants
  • Thermax and MET Pursuing South Asian Market with Wet and Dry FGD Technology
  • TSGenco Moving Forward with Air Pollution Control Upgrades at Four Units Totaling 1800 MW
  • Yokogawa Process Optimization Reduces Yearly Costs in Limestone FGD System in Japanese Power Plant
  • Analysis of Indian FGD Suppliers
  • Doosan Is Active in India and Around the World in the Full Range of APC Equipment

·       Indure Is A Large Indian EPC Company with APC Licenses

  • BHEL Is the Leading Supplier of Power Plants and FGD Systems in India
  • ISGEC Has Licenses from Multiple International APC Suppliers
  • GE Is the Second Largest FGD Supplier in India
  • Hamon Indian Subsidiary Selling Cooling Towers, Chimneys and Air Pollution Control Equipment in India
  • Rieco Offers A Limestone FGD System with A Venturi Scrubber for Particulate removal
  • Andritz Offers Wet and Dry FGD Systems in India
  • Larsen and Toubro Designs Plants, Air Pollution Control Systems and manufactures Components Such as Valves
  • Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubber Could Be the Best Choice for Many Indian Power Plants
  • Adage Automation Supplies 127 CEMS For Reliance Industries
  • Bids Close for DSI for 4 x 210 MW of DSI Systems at Punjab State Power Roopnagar In September 2019
  • Tata Power March 2019 Bid Request For 1x67.5-MW DSI FGD System
  • Valmet Uses the Condensing Scrubber Technology to Recover Heat
  • JGC Supplying Dry Scrubbers and NOx Control
  • Mississippi Lime Completes Acquisition of Southern Lime
  • Fortum Has Combustion Modification Order from Hindalco
  • BHEL Has 13 Orders for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System to Reduce NOx
  • BHEL Has Order for FGD Systems at the 4x250-MW Nabinagar Project of BRBCL
  • ECOMAK Supplies Precipitator Upgrades and the Venturi Option Could Be Combined With FGD
  • United Conveyor Has Dadri Order For DSI
  • Envea Pursuing FGD CEMS Market in India
  • Johnsen Chemicals Has A Combustion Catalyst That Lowers Pollutants
  • EPP Provides FRP Scrubber Vessels
  • Uniphos Provides Particulate and Gas CEMS
  • LeBracs Supplies Rubber Lining for Vessels and Ducts
  • Carmeuse Exporting Lime to India from Oman
  • Sorbacal® SPS Used in CDS and DSI Systems
  • Lhoist Announced Possible Price Increases of 11 percent Last December
  • Lhoist Market Share in Asia




  • Leveraging DSUA Expertise to Assist Indian Utilities Participating in SOx-NOx Conference



Analysis of SOx-NOx India Participating Companies


We have been reporting on SOx-NOx India in the months leading up to the event last month. This included a webinar with S. Dalvi of Mission Energy as a featured speaker. The conference was quite successful in providing insights needed for the very ambitious air pollution control program which is being undertaken.


We reported earlier on the speakers and exhibitors. Now we are reporting on the attendees.   There were one or more attendees from each of the companies described below. They include end users, suppliers, governmental agencies, and consultants. The combined knowledge  is invaluable. It will be 12 months before the next conference, but the information exchange can be expanded into an ongoing program to serve as  bridge.


We are working with Mission Energy to schedule regular webinars. We are also offering 44I Coal Fired Power Plant Decisions free of charge to Indian utilities and industrial power generators. The papers from the previous conferences plus the Decisions service will provide the basis for high level webinars.


The decisions on wet limestone FGD have already been made by many plants. But there still are component decisions such as controls, oxidation blowers for the sulfite recycle system, belts for the gravity filter systems, and certain critical valves and pumps. It has been found that even coupling decisions can be important.


For 80,000 MW of projects for which designs have not been finalized there are many important issues to resolve.  These include:


·        Consideration of natural oxidation lime systems with chemical fixing of sludge for use in landfills. The capital cost is only 60% of the limestone forced oxidation gypsum system.  This may make sense for older plants.

·        Determining whether wet systems, dry sorbent injection, spray dryer absorber, circulating fluid bed absorbers or even a salable product such as ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid is the best choice.

·        Determining how much particulate will be removed in the scrubber. The use of a rod deck as the first stage in the absorption tower can reduce particulate emissions by 50%. Consideration of the compromise climate change solution Sucking CO2 Out of the Air Means There is No Tipping Point, Biomass Ready Coal Fired Plants and Massive Tree Planting will be the Compromise Climate Change Solution. A number of small older coal-fired plants are operated by attendees such as the cement and textile companies described below. The long-term program would be to plant lots of trees to suck out CO2 and when they reach end of life, use them for fuel.  One of the attendees, Valmet is helping companies convert from 100% coal to combination fuels. So, there are lots of options to explore in webinars.


ADAGE AUTOMATION - we covered their stand display of automaton and CEMs previously.


ASHLAND is an international supplier of resins for FGD and covered in  66 articles in the Alert and many more in the FGD newsletter.


BHARAT LIME ASSOCIATION was formed solely…To promote, particularly in India, the advancement of the knowledge of limestone, dolomite stone, lime and calcined dolomite-related products among its existing and prospective members and also bring into contact those engaged in these pursuits, with a view to developing a synergy among them particularly the industry, the professionals, the academia and R & D Institutions.


To receive, edit, publish and distribute papers, periodicals or journals, books and hold Conferences, Meetings, Symposia, Colloquia, Workshops on relevant themes and subjects and to set up Libraries as and where convenient and also to exchange journal and other publications with similar materials published elsewhere and to establish interrelationship in mutual interest with similar bodies in different parts of the world. The association is linked to the National Lime Association in the U.S. and to the international and British associations as well.


BHARATI CEMENT is a division of Vicat in India. It  functions in 3 verticals - Cement, Aggregates and Polymers with a team of over 850 professionals and operations spread across 7 states in India


BOKARO POWER SUPPLY COMPANY PVT. LTD. (BPSCL) established in 2001 is a Joint Venture Company of Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) and is engaged in power and steam generation and supplies power and steam (at various pressures) to SAIL’s Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) located at Bokaro for meeting the process requirement of BSL.


The BPSCL Power Plant is located on the premises of the Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) and has an aggregate installed capacity to generate 302 MW of power besides 660 Ton per Hour (TPH) of steam.


The Plant has 9 boilers (5 boilers each of 220 TPH, 3 boilers each of 260 TPH capacity and 1 boiler of 300 TPH) and 7 turbine generators (one 12 MW back Pressure Turbine Generator (TG), 2 TGs each of 55 MW capacity, 3 TGs each of 60 MW capacity and one 36 MW back Pressure Turbine Generator).


CARMEUSE lime and limestone activities have been covered in many of the 2000 previous Utility E-Alert issues.  Also, their activities as Dravo Lime, including natural oxidation and chemical fixing using high magnesium lime, have been reported.


CHEMICAL PROCESS EQUIPMENT supplies FRP tanks, piping and other FRP products used in power and FGD


CHEMTRON PROCESS EQUIPMENTS provides wastewater and water treatment systems.


CHEMTRON SCIENCE LABORATORIES supplies calibration gases.


CHATTISGARTH STATE POWER is a major operator of coal-fired power plants. There are 133 articles about them in previous Utility E-Alerts, including an order placed with BHEL for an FGD system appearing in the September 13, 2019 Alert.


CHRISTIAN PFEIFFER  makes FGD ball mills. They gave a presentation at 2018 SOx-NOx


COAL PREPARATION SOCIETY OF INDIA’s main objective is to promote washing of domestic coal with high ash content to improve its heat value, improve its combustion with reduced emissions and make it environmentally acceptable and sustainable fuel for economic development and long-term energy security.


COUNCIL ON ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, AND WATER is an India-based but globally engaged research think-tank, which analyses and advises on critical questions concerning energy, environment and water. It publishes analyses such as


CPCB has its head office in New Delhi, with seven zonal offices and five laboratories. The board conducts environmental assessments and research. It is responsible for maintaining national standards under a variety of environmental laws, It has responsibilities to conduct monitoring of water and air quality and maintains monitoring data. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. It advises the central government to prevent and control water and air pollution.


DESEIN INDURE with its headquarters in New Delhi, India, is a leading engineering consultancy organization with over 38,000 MW of experience in setting up coal/lignite-fired power plants as well as gas based simple and combined cycle power plants with unit sizes ranging up to 800 MW, which is the largest size single unit of supercritical technology currently under implementation in India. In 1987, DESEIN set up a separate division to provide environmental engineering solutions to mitigate pollution arising out of new projects. Since then, a group of specialists in this field has undertaken field studies to determine the impact and suggest remedial measures for setting up of more than 80 large power projects with a cumulative capacity of around 62,000 MW of power in India.


ECOMAK provides dry and semi dry FGD systems plus venturi scrubbers and fabric filters.


ENGINEERS INDIA LIMITED (EIL) is an engineering consultancy, and engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) company in the power, hydrocarbons and petrochemicals industry. The company's segments are Consultancy & Engineering Projects, and Turnkey Projects. Its services include technologies, pre-Front End Engineering Design (FEED) and FEED, project management, procurement services, construction services and specialized services.


ENVIRONNEMENT supplies CEMS and instrumentation with many articles about them in the Alert and Monitoring newsletter (now IIoT and Remote O&M).


EPP COMPOSITES supplies FRP vessels and piping and has a new partnership with Plasticon.


GE-BH supplies valves for coal-fired power plants.

HINDALCO is the world's largest aluminum rolling company and is also a leading producer of copper. Along with its global subsidiary Novelis Inc., Hindalco has a presence in 12 countries. The company operates across the value chainfrom bauxite mining to alumina refining, aluminum smelting and rolling and extrusions. It operates coal-fired power plants including 6 x 150 MW at one location.


HINDUSTAN ZINC has 474 MW of coal-fired boiler capacity.


HITACHI ZOSEN supplies air pollution control equipment, including dry scrubbers and NOx control.


HORIBA is an international supplier of CEMs and air and water instrumentation. There are a number of articles about this company in the Alert and Monitoring  newsletters.


IMAGICO  is a Mumbai-based company that manufactures high quality colorants and pigment dispersions for paints, printing inks, paper, textiles and various other products.


INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZERS - Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) is one of India's biggest cooperative societies which is wholly-owned by Indian Cooperatives. It operates coal-fired boilers.


INDUS ENERGY CONSULTANTS was incorporated in December 2017, by a team  from  the  power and steel industry with over 20+ years of individual experience. It operates in the field of Electrical Transmission & Distribution, Power Generation and Structural Steel Fabrication.


INEOS has just acquired Ashland Composites. It  is one of the world’s largest chemical companies and the 50th largest business in the world, employing around 20,000 people across 171 sites in 24 countries. It is a privately-owned company with sales in 2018 of $60 billion and EBITDA of $7 billion.


ISGEC is a multi-product, multi-location public company, which  has been providing engineering solutions to customers across 91 countries for the past 85 years. There are multiple partners for air pollution control equipment.


ENVIROTHERM GMBH, GERMANY for  Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP) up to 1000 MWe (Tumbling Hammer Design) Indigenous Top Rapped Compact Design for Industrial Range Boilers/ Other Applications  Experience: More than 150+ ESP Installations, with biggest unit of 180 MW.


FUEL TECH INC., USA - For reduction of Particulate Matter emissions by use of Electrostatic Precipitators performance improvement technologies (especially Flue Gas Conditioning). For NOx reduction processes by use of urea or ammonia (SCR and SNCR).


BABCOCK POWER ENVIRONMENTAL INC., USA - For Wet Limestone-based Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems of more than 100 MWe Unit Size.


ISGEC REDECAM ENVIRO SOLUTIONS PVT. LTD. - For Bag Filters and Hybrid Filters for all industrial applications; for ESP's for Ferrous, Non-ferrous and Cement Industry for Dry DeSOx solutions (Dry Sorbent Injection & Circulating Dry Scrubber) for Industrial Applications.


SUMITOMO SHI FW - ISGEC is the partner for CFB boilers and CFB dry scrubbers. A joint ISGEC/ SHI FW webinar was held in India in June. Presenters were Robert Giglio | Senior Vice President of Strategic Planning and Business Development | Sumitomo SHI FW, Asif Hussain | Senior VP of Strategic Business Development | Sumitomo SHI FW, Greg Szulc | Commercial Manager | Sumitomo SHI FW and Niranjan Shastry | Senior Vice President | ISGEC Heavy Engineering Limited.


JK CEMENT is the second largest manufacturer of white cement in India, with an annual capacity of 600,000 tons. It is also the second largest producer of wall putty in the country with an annual installed capacity of 700,000 tons. JK Cement was the first company to install a captive power plant in the year 1987 at Bamania, Rajasthan. J.K Cement is also the first cement company to install a waste heat recovery power plant to take care of the need of green power. Today at its different locations, the company has captive power generation capacity of over 140.7 MWs which include 23.2 MW of waste heat recovery power plants.


JGC is a designer of power plant systems with a recent order in the Philippines. It also offers a dry scrubber system which has been successfully employed in Japan.


JIANGAN ENVIRONMENTAL supplies SO2 scrubber systems using ammonia to produce ammonium sulfate. It has many installations in China


JOHNSEN CHEMICALS  was established in 2008 and has since been working on the development of a catalyst for solid fuel. The product has been tested on several markets with good results. The results show that the catalyst contributes to a reduction of harmful emissions while also making the combustion process more effective with a lower consumption of fuel. Sootaway is a combustion catalyst for solid fuel. The active ingredient is a manganese complex. The catalyst works on all types of solid fuels. 


KOCH-GLITCH provides mist eliminators for FGD systems. There are many articles about their experiences in the Utility E-Alert and discussions of their separation ability vs. particle size in the FGD & DeNOx newsletter.


LEBRACS RUBBER LININGS is a rubber lining manufacturer supply tank linings.


LOGIC LADDER  provides energy and environment intelligence technology including CEMS software that makes data simple to acquire, understand and act upon. 


LUEHR FILTER is teamed with Ecomak supplying APC equipment  and is widely covered in the Fabric Filter newsletter.


MAGO THERMAL provides biomass capable boilers, venturi scrubbers, sieve trays, dry scrubbers, and double alkali systems.

MAHARASHTRA STATE POWER GENERATION (Mahagenco) has the highest overall generation capacity and the highest thermal installed capacity among all the state power generation utilities in India. In terms of installed capacity, it is the second highest generation company after NTPC. having generation capacity of 13,602 MW comprising 10,170 MW thermal, 2,580 MW hydel, 672 MW gas turbine and 180 MWp solar. It was established by the government of Maharashtra under the central electricity act-2003 with the principal objective of engaging in the business of generation of electricity,


MAXIMA FRP PRODUCT supplies FRP for scrubbers, blowers, tanks and chimneys.


MECS INDIA is part of Dupont Clean Technologies, which furnishes Dynawave scrubbers and also complete systems to make sulfuric acid from SO2.  It also supplies ozone generation systems in combination with the Dynawave to absorb NO2 resulting from the reaction of NOx and ozone.  McIlvaine recently analyzed this potential for one power plant, which only needed modest NOx removal and found that this was much more economical than adding SCR.


MELCO INDIA supplies bottom ash and flyash transportation systems as well as slurry pump repair parts.


THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENTFOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE (MoEF&CC) is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Central Government for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programs. The climate change program McIlvaine outlined to make future coal plants biomass capable and to plant millions of trees, is a combination which this agency already has within its scope


NTPC is the largest power generator in India and one of the largest in the world. There are hundreds of articles about its activities in the Alert and various McIlvaine newsletters. There is detailed reporting of each proposed FGD project and the status of those underway.


OPG POWER GENERATION is a developer and operator of power plants in India with 414 MW of thermal capacity.


ORIENT CEMENT began cement production in the year 1982 at Devapur in Adilabad District, Telangana. In 1997, a split-grinding unit was added at Nashirabad in Jalgaon, Maharashtra. In 2015, Orient Cement started commercial production at its integrated cement plant located at Chittapur, Gulbarga, Karnataka. With a total capacity of 8 MTPA, they serve Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. It has a 50 MW coal-fired power plant with ESPs.


PLASTICON is a major supplier of FRP tanks, lining, etc. and has a joint venture with EPP in India. There are many articles on Plasticon in the FGD & DeNOx newsletter.


RELIANCE INDUSTRIES - The company is the sole distributor of electricity to consumers in the suburbs of Mumbai. But in 2017 they sold the Mumbai operation to Adani Power. It also runs power generation, transmission and distribution businesses in other parts of Maharashtra, Goa and Andhra Pradesh. With its subsidiaries, it is developing 13 medium and large-sized power projects with a combined planned installed capacity of 33,480 MW.


RIECO INDUSTRIES supplies wet FGD systems, fabric filters and other APC equipment.


RSWM is a large textile manufacturer with coal-fired power generation.


SMARTLUTH provides power plant  management software.


STEAM EQUIPMENTS provides air and water analysis systems.


SWAN ENVIRONMENTAL is a major international supplier of air and water instruments.  There are many articles on their power plant activities in Monitoring (now IIoT newsletter).


TALEC ENGINEERING solves APC problems. NTPC Ltd. was experiencing flow issues on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor due to ash buildup. In a pilot project overseen by YARA Environmental Technologies, the SCR was installed on a trial basis with the intent to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxide) emissions. Talec Engineering Pvt. Ltd. was brought in to consult and install equipment which included a Martin air cannon.


TELANGA STATE POWER GENERATION has increased its installed power generation capacity to 16,506 MW from 7,778 MW in 2014 when the State was formed making it into one of the fastest growing sectors in the country. The Telangana government is now gearing up to increase the total capacity to 28,400 MW over the next 4-5 years.


TETHYS INSTRUMENTS is a manufacturer of gas and water on-line analyzers for environmental and process applications. 


THE RAMCO CEMENTS LTD, manufactures Portland Cement  in eight state-of-the art production facilities that includes Integrated Cement plants and Grinding units with a current total production capacity of 16.45 MTPA (out of which Satellite Grinding units capacity alone is 4 MTPA). The company is the fifth largest cement producer in the country. Coal-fired generators have been supplied by Thermax.


SINGARENI COLLIERIES COMPANY LIMITED (SCCL) is a government coal mining company jointly owned by the Government of Telangana and the Government of India on a 51:49 equity basis. The Singareni coal reserves stretch across 350 km of the Pranahita – Godavari Valley of Telangana with proven geological reserves aggregating to whopping 8,791 million tons. SCCL is currently operating 18 opencast and 30 underground mines in 4 districts of Telangana with a manpower around 48,942.


TATA POWER  Presentlythermal power accounts for around 70 percent of Tata Power’s portfolio. But the current energy mix is part of the company’s long-term legacy before 2013 when renewable energy was pricier compared with competitive coal-fired power.


“The company’s plan, ‘Strategic Intent 2025’ calls for up to 70 percent of new capacity additions to come from solar, wind and hydro through to 2025. This represents a significant departure from the accepted wisdom of just a few years ago that a major expansion of coal-fired power would be required to serve India’s growing electricity demand”, said Simon Nicholas, energy finance analyst at IEEFA.


The majority of Tata Power’s thermal capacity is now centered on its 4,150 MW Mundra coal-fired power plant - one of the biggest power plants in India - which experienced losses reaching $191 million for the first three-quarters of FY 2019. See detailed analysis in the July 19 Utility E Alert


Thermax Limited has concluded an order of INR 471 crore from an Indian government power company to set up two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems at their thermal power plant in the state of Jharkhand.


As a part of the customer’s drive to meet the mandates for regulating SOx emissions from coal fired power plants, they plan to install two units of FGD systems of 500 MW capacity each at their plant.


“Since its inception, Thermax has been one of the key contributors to the nation’s pollution abatement journey by providing sustainable solutions. This prestigious order reinforces our capabilities in supporting power plants to meet the stringent emission laws laid by the government in line with its commitment to the environment,” says M.S. Unnikrishnan, MD & CEO, Thermax Limited.   See details in July 19 Alert.


TORRENT POWER - Torrent  has thermal power generation capacity of 3,092 MW with a unique mix of coal and gas-based power plants that use the latest power generation technologies to ensure high thermal efficiency. It also operates in the renewable energy segment with 610.5 MW operational plants and 851.3 MW plants under-construction, taking the total renewable generation capacity to 1461.8 MW.


ULTRATECH CEMENT LTD. is the largest manufacturer of grey cement, Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) and white cement in India. It is also one of the leading cement producers globally. The company has a consolidated capacity* of 102.75 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of grey cement. UltraTech Cement has 20 integrated plants, 1 clinkerization plant, 26 grinding units and 7 bulk terminals. Its operations span across India, UAE, Bahrain, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. UltraTech Cement is also India's largest exporter of cement reaching out to meet the demand in countries around the Indian Ocean and the Middle East.  4 x 25 MW coal-fired plants are described at



UNIPHOS ENVIROTRONIC PVT. LTD is the only Indian manufacturer of chemical detector tubes, electrochemical gas sensors and pellistors for combustible gases. The company also supplies Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS), Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System (AAQMS), Water Quality Analyzers,  and Oil Quality Analyzers.


UNITED CONVEYOR makes flyash handling equipment and also  direct sorbent injection systems which are being supplied to the Dadri power plant and will be the first large scale power plant application of DSI  in India. Hundreds of articles on United Conveyor appear in the Alert, FGD & DeNOx, Precipitator, Fabric Filter and other McIlvaine newsletters.


VALMET  can help convert older Indian coal-fired boilers to a combination of biomass and coal. (see introduction) In Finland, Valmet delivered a CFB boiler with 100-percent coal-firing capacity and a design fuel mixture that also includes wood-based biomass (0–75 percent), agro-based biomass (0–15 percent), peat (0–95 percent) and solid recycled fuel (0–5 percent).

The target is to run the plant 70 percent on biomass. In order to run purely on biomass, the plant would have to make an additional investment. Valmet’s delivery also included flue gas cleaning systems and a wide range automation solutions, for example, for monitoring emissions and managing energy consumption.


VASTHI INSTRUMENTS manufactures the following instruments:  Gas Analyzer, Gas Detectors, Dew Point Meter, Dew Point Analyzer, Online Dew Point Meter, Portable Dew Point Meter, Particulate Monitors, Stack Gas Analyzers, and have been supplying instruments to customers worldwide.


VIRGINIA MINING RESOURCES (VMR) is incorporated in the United States. It  provides mining services and expertise in coal mining in the U.S. The company is currently actively pursuing expansion of its mining footprint internationally with focus in India. VMR’s India operations are initially concentrating on coal and iron ore mining. This includes management of mine operations through  planning, design and development in long-term contractual basis through the Mine Development Operation (MDO) and Public Private Partnership (PPP) concepts in the public and private sector.


W.L GORE supplies mercury and SO2 capture polymeric absorbers.  It also supplies Gore-Tex media and bags for particulate capture.  There are hundreds of articles and recorded webinars in the McIlvaine publications on Gore technology. Mark DeGarboewski was a speaker at SOx-NOx and Jeff Kolde was an attendee.


We will be working with Mission Energy, the attendees and suppliers to move forward with a program to maintain the momentum achieved at the conference. More information on the decisions service with the 4 newsletters, intelligence system and  webinars is available at 44I Coal Fired Power Plant Decisions. 


If you have suggestions relative to webinars  for India you can contact Bob McIlvaine  at, Direct 847 784 0013 and cell 847 226 239l



Effect of Interference on the Combust, Flow, and Treat Markets


The combust, flow, and treat (CFT) products and services markets will exceed $400 billion next year. The market has typically been segmented by McIlvaine on geographical end use. However, this analysis is based on where the profits are generated. India and Italy are major exporters of valves. Africa will enjoy a rapidly increasing market but China will be one of the main beneficiaries in terms of CFT products and services. It is building complete power plants and mines and, in many cases, taking part ownership of them.


The market in 2030 is likely to rise to just under $600 billion if there is a lack of government interference.  However if there is interference in the markets the revenues could only rise to $535 billion.


Interference is a label which applies to tariffs, military destruction of refineries and greenhouse gas legislation as well as similar factors not experienced previously. The world has enjoyed a policy based on the principle that a rising tide floats all ships. Even though the U.S. and Europe are experiencing shrinkage in terms of percentage of world consumption within their borders they have managed to export or produce goods in Asian countries and take advantage of the growing prosperity in  that region.









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The U.S. and the U.K are embarked on policies which will reduce the total market and ultimately decrease their percentage share of a smaller pie.  If the U.S. continues aggressive tariff implementation it might see a slight increase in CFT revenues next year but by 2030 it will encounter a smaller market and a smaller market share for its CFT companies.


The U.S. is in an enviable position due to hydraulic fracturing and its leading position as an oil and gas producer.  However, China is aggressively pursuing fracturing and coal to syngas and liquids. It is also pursuing fracturing in the Middle East and Argentina.  Sinopec is already the world’s largest CFT product consumer and a major supplier as well. By 2030 it is likely that low cost oil and gas will be produced by fracturing in several countries.


In a free environment the role of governments and even geography become secondary whereas the role of multinational corporations becomes paramount.  This includes CFT purchasers such  as Shell, BASF, Pfizer, and Arcelor Mittal.  It includes suppliers such as GEA, GE, Xylem, Doosan, Shenhua Guodian and MHPS.  The international suppliers can deal with the international  purchasers. Since many international suppliers are in Europe and the U.S. these locations benefit from the free environment. Government imposed restrictions will reduce the market and role of these major companies and decrease the prosperity of the countries in which they are home based.


The actions to fight climate change are another variable.  Under an extreme scenario CO2 reduction could be prioritized regardless of consequences. In a compromise plan such as proposed by McIlvaine there would not be a negative impact on the economy and the CFT market.


The interference variables need to be considered in all the CFT market forecasting. All the long range forecasts appearing in the specific McIlvaine market reports are updated continually to reflect these variables.

Bob McIlvaine can answer your questions at  direct 847 784 0013 cell 847 226 2391



Sucking CO2 Out of the Air Means There is No Tipping Point


There is the widely held belief that we could reach some tipping point after which we are helpless to combat the greenhouse gas problem.  However, as reported by McIlvaine last week, there is a way to suck the CO2 out  of the air. So this does not make us helpless. There is a cost associated with the removal effort but it will be far less than drastic preventive measures such as eliminating all fossil fuels.


The UK is leading the way with a program to burn biomass in its largest coal fired boiler. If the resultant CO2 is sequestered, the net effect would be to achieve two thirds of the entire CO2 reduction goals for the nation.


The analysis last week shows the conclusion of researchers that tree planting would be a cost effective way to capture most of the excess CO2 generated in the past 200 years. However, the problem is that in 2050 many of the trees will start dying and we will reach an equilibrium. The CO2 capture from newly planted trees will equal the amount emitted by decomposing trees.  However if all the coal fired boilers built in the future are biomass capable and can sequester their CO2 then the tree planting program remains effective.


The present CO2 level is 410 ppm.  In the next 30 years new coal plants in India and other initiatives are likely to have the impact of increasing CO2 by 1 ppm per year.  But a massive tree planting program could have the effect of reducing CO2 by more than 1 ppm per year. The net effect would be a 390 ppm CO2 level in 2050.




ppm CO2


ppm CO2




New Coal and Other



Tree Planting



Biomass Combustion and Sequestration



CO2 level in the atmosphere at end of period




After 2050 solar and wind will be more cost effective particularly if energy storage methods advance. The need for new coal fired plants will cease but there will be other sources with the potential to add 20 ppm to the atmosphere in the 2050-2080 time frame.


In 2050 there will be a very large quantity of fuel contained in elderly trees. They can be harvested and burned as fuel. They do not emit CO2 to the atmosphere due to sequestration. New trees which replace the old trees will continue to remove CO2.  So this initiative would more than offset man made sources and the CO2 level could drop to 380 ppm in 2080.


CO2 sequestration has been commercially practiced for decades. One use has been enhanced oil recovery.  CO2 is being piped long distances in many areas. Presently it is economic only if it has a use such as recovering oil. The UK believes that new carbon capture technologies will drive down the cost over the coming years. But whether it is inexpensive or expensive the situation is manageable in 2050 due to the ability to suck out the CO2. This control provides flexibility. McIlvaine Company knows that predictions regarding environmental impacts are seldom precisely accurate. So flexibility is very important.


Robert McIlvaine has been involved in air pollution control since the original Clean Air Act. He testified before senate sub committees relative to the mitigation of acid rain through installing scrubbers at power plants. The big concern was destruction of forests and buildings. Little was understood about the potential for SO2 to react with basic chemicals in the atmosphere and create fine particles which damage the lungs. It was later found that sulfur has a positive effect on the soil and that some of the isolated areas of tree destruction were not likely to be duplicated with increased SO2. However, it is now clear that the sulfate aerosols were a major problem and more than justified the SO2 reduction.


Dioxin emissions from waste incinerators are another example of incomplete knowledge. This concern caused the U.S. to discourage waste to energy plants in the 1970s and 1980s. The rest of the world discovered that waste to energy rather than landfilling was much better for the environment.  So in most areas of the world you have to combust rather than landfill waste but do so with removal of the air pollutants.


The greenhouse gas effect may be worse or better than the average scientist now believes. But it is nearly assured that the impact will be different than anticipated. This is why a flexible policy is so desirable.


Biomass Ready Coal Fired Plants and Massive Tree Planting will be the Compromise Climate Change Solution


Coal provided 26 percent of the additional power generation last year and 38 percent of all generation. There are 500,000 MW of new coal fired generation in the planning stage. This is more than was ever installed in the Americas and Europe. So any programs to reduce coal fired generation on these two continents to zero would eliminate less than is being added elsewhere in the world.


The intergovernmental panel on climate change has a solution. One trillion trees can be planted. They will store an estimated 205 gigatons of carbon, or about two-thirds of the carbon that humans have added to the atmosphere since the 1800s.


The problem with this approach is that 30 years from now in 2050 there will be lots of trees dying and emitting CO2. However at that time the biomass can be harvested and burned in power generators. If the 500,000 MW of new coal fired capacity which is built is designed to be biomass ready it can be converted making each of the generators carbon neutral. If this CO2 is then sequestered these generators would be as the UK describes it “sucking the CO2 out of the air. They would be the only generator type which actually reduces CO2.


What are the costs?  The continuation of the coal fired power program would net a savings of $7.2 trillion over 30 years.  The tree planting program would cost $700 billion resulting in a $6.5 trillion saving over the 30 years. For the period 2050-2080 the coal plants would be converted to burn biomass and sequester CO2.  This would raise costs of electricity generation and make this approach relatively costly.





Tree Planting

-$700 billion

-$700 billion

Saving with coal vs more expensive generation options

$7.2 trillion


Net savings

$6.5 trillion


Biomass combustion and sequestration



Net cost differential

$6.5 trillion

-$700 billion










In 2050 these biomass ready coal plants would have already served their purpose as coal generators. Their conversion to biomass would insure that the forestation approach is sustaining in terms of CO2 minimization. However if there are major improvements in the  cost of wind and solar, the plants could be retired.


Another option is to convert these plants to biomass combustion at an earlier date. There is optimism that the cost of sequestration can be  greatly reduced through programs underway at Drax and other locations.  If some of the most pessimistic forecasters are right and climate change becomes a crisis then the biomass generation and sequestration becomes the only route to solve the problem since it reduces  CO2.


The details on this approach are continually evaluated in the 42EI Utility Tracking System. Bob McIlvaine can answer your questions at  cell 847 226 2391



Utility Tracking System has Details on All Coal Fired Operators Around the World


Less than 1000 industrial and utility power companies have more than 500 MW of coal fired capacity either planned or installed.  These owners will be buying components and systems for 500,000 MW of new coal fired generators and replacement and upgrade components for 2.2 million MW of existing capacity. These companies will purchase more combust, flow and treat products than owners of nuclear, solar, gas turbine, and wind generators combined. These plants are moving toward centralized  purchasing based on lowest total cost of ownership. Therefore sales programs directed to each of the 1000 companies will be highly productive and cost effective. The Utility E Alert 41F Utility E-Alert reports on the projects and technology on a weekly basis. This is part of the Utility Tracking System  42EI Utility Tracking System  with details on each plant.


Here is an example of those coal fired plant operators with planned additions between 6000-7000 MW.




Planned MW



NLC India















GCM Resources




The tracking system also provides forecasts of coal fired capacity by country through 2024.


Coal Fired Capacity- MW

























Bosnia & Herzegovina
















North Macedonia


























For more information on the tracking system click on 42EI Utility Tracking System.  Bob McIlvaine can answer your questions at cell  847 226 2391



The Future of Biopharmaceuticals will Depend on Perceived Value vs Cost

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the U.K has approved several CAR-T therapies even though the cost may be hundreds of thousands of dollars. The rationale is that the benefits will be long lasting and result in average costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained which are within the guidelines.


NICE says it generally considers that interventions costing the National Health Service (NHS)

 less than £20,000 per QALY gained are cost effective and those costing up to £30,000 per QALY gained might, with certain conditions satisfied, be considered cost effective.



The biopharmaceutical industry is making rapid progress to develop drugs to cure or mitigate diseases. However, this progress is coming with increased costs.


Costs increased as the healthcare industry expanded from using chemical compounds and treating broad diseases to utilizing living cells and creating drugs for specific individuals with CAR-T and other therapies. Even if there is no increase in the cost reimbursement per QALY, new medicines will increase the number of people who will benefit.


This results in a steadily increasing cost of healthcare as a percentage of GDP. This will require  tougher decisions about how care is allocated. The optimum program should take into account


1       A more useful definition than QALY

2       The need to allocate health care expenditures as part of a broader  program to maximize life quality

3       Integration of two additional metrics

a.      Discounted future value

b.     Tribal factor


A more useful definition than QALY

QALY is widely used around the world to determine the cost/benefits of  treatment. One year of perfect health equals one QALY. One year of less than perfect health has a quality of life (QoL, or utility value) between 0–1. Death has a utility value of 0 (a respondent could choose to record a score below zero – worse than death – where, for instance, they are experiencing severe distress and/or possibly a terminal illness).


QoL has five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/ depression, each of which can be at one of three levels of severity, for example: no problems, some/moderate problems and extreme problems. A new five-level version can describe 243 unique combinations.


The problem with QALY is that the definition of perfect is far below the aspirations of anyone.  A prisoner in solitary confinement  could be higher on the list for a heart transplant than most individuals.  The solider who falls on the grenade has elevated one minute of life quality above decades of life quantity. The average person would rather live to 80 and enjoy life than live to 100 without ever experiencing life’s more risky pleasures.


There is a metric which is better than QALY and will have common acceptance.  It is Quality Enhanced Life Days (QELD). It simply quantifies the decisions people have made and are making to improve their life quality.


The need to allocate health care expenditures as part of a program to maximize life quality.   With all the new therapies there is a real value in continuing to increase expenditures as a percentage of GDP. This decision can be best made by using QELD as a common metric to decide how expenditures are allocated. An example would be climate change vs healthcare. There is a world wide movement for a very expensive program to reduce CO2 emissions. What share of GDP should go to fight climate change versus medical treatment?  QELD can be the metric to best make this decision.


Integration of Two Additional Metrics

QELD has to be determined  based on the intrinsic value but with these additional metrics. One is the discounted future value. A medical treatment may have immediate benefits whereas investment in programs to decrease greenhouse gases may not have tangible benefits for many decades. The other metric is the tribal factor. Most people prioritize family life quality followed in descending order by friends and neighbors, city, and finally country. The lower concern for  individuals in other countries is  reflected in the foreign aid budgets of wealthy nations. It is typically far less than 1% of GDP.


McIlvaine has provided in depth analysis of the use of QELD, discounted future value, and the tribal factor in its consulting activities. Cardinal Health contracted with McIlvaine to help them determine whether they should be offering single use or reusable surgical gowns. Single use surgical gowns are discarded and replaced adding to the world’s CO2 burden. Washing and reusing gowns provides risks of waterborne disease.


The analysis concluded that the quantity of CO2 emitted from manufacturing 17 million gowns per year was miniscule as was the risk of water borne disease from reusables. The difference for hospital patients living near the hospital was that the washing  risks would be immediate and would affect them whereas  the greenhouse gas risks were long term and unlikely to affect them as much as it would those living near the equator. 

More information on this study is shown at  Sustainability Universal Rating System   An article on the subject was featured in   For more information on this initiative contact Bob McIlvaine at  cell 847 226 2391


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